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E6010 Recommended Welding Techniques E6010 Recommended Welding Techniques

Introduction to E6010 Electrodes and Recommended Welding Techniques

By Kenneth Alrick, Senior Welding Business Manager, SanRex

Welding success depends on having the right tools and knowing how to use them. For welding pipe, welding out-of-position and field applications involving dirty or rusty metal, that means using E6010 SMAW (Stick) electrodes and welding power sources specifically designed to run this electrode.

Stick electrodes gain different characteristics because the coating composition varies by electrode type. Per ASME Section II part D (par. A7.1), “The coverings [on an E6010 electrode] are high in cellulose, usually exceeding 30% by weight. The other materials generally used in the covering include titanium dioxide, metallic deoxidizers such as ferromanganese, various types of magnesium or aluminum silicates, and liquid sodium silicate as a binder.”

Because of the covering composition, E6010 electrodes are generally described as “cellulosic” or “high cellulose sodium” electrodes. These electrodes share the following characteristics:

 A deeply penetrating, forceful, spray type arc, which helps the operator achieve good tie-in on both sides of the joint when making a root pass.
 These “digging” characteristics also make E6010 electrodes a good choice for field repair work, as the digging arc can burn through rust, dirt and paint (still, there’s no substitute for good weld preparation).
 A weld puddle that wets out well, yet cools quickly. This “fast freezing” attribute makes E6010 electrodes especially suitable for welding overhead. Operators like E6010 electrodes because the molten metal stays in the joint and doesn’t fall down on them as much compared to other all-position electrodes.
 A thin layer of slag that removes easily, simplifying cleanup and preparation for the next welding pass.
 A weld face that is flat with coarse, unevenly spaced ripples.

Combined, these attributes are why E6010 electrodes are specified for pipe welding, as well as for applications such as field construction, ship yards, water towers, pressure vessels, pressure pipes, steel castings and steel storage tanks.

Joint Preparation
Many of the applications for E6010 electrodes require 100 percent penetration. In the case of critical welds, 100 percent of the joints will undergo ultrasonic testing and other inspections. Ensuring complete fusion starts with good weld preparation, and for a typical E6010 open root butt weld, that means:

 Beveling the edges of the pipe or plate; a typical bevel is 37.5 degrees for pipe and 22.5 degrees for plate.
 Leaving a small “nickel width” land (about 3/32 to 1/8 inch). A land is the unbeveled portion of the metal at the edge of the joint. The metal needs to be thicker here to support the heat of the weld; otherwise, the force of the arc will “blow through” the joint.
 Creating a gap of about 3/32 to 1/8 inch (or according to specification). To ensure an even gap, an old pipe welder’s trick is to bend a length of 3/32- or 1/8-inch TIG filler into a U shape and insert it between the sections when tacking.

And speaking of tacking, make tack welds about 1-inch long, then use a grinder to taper or “feather” each end of the tack. The object is to have a tack thick enough to establish the arc without burn through, yet thin enough so that the heat of the arc consumes the tack. After establishing the arc, many operators briefly “long arc” the electrode to heat up the middle of the tack, then reduce arc length (“tighten the arc”) as they transition off the feather and into the gap.

Whip and Pause
E6010 electrodes require three specific manipulation techniques. To start, remember that voltage is proportional to distance. A long arc increases voltage (and puddle fluidity), and a short (“tight”) arc reduces voltage and provides more control over the puddle. Because of its driving arc characteristics, E6010 electrodes require a tight arc. Instructors sometimes tell students to basically push the electrode all the way into the gap (“You’re holding a long arc. Jam it in there!”).

The second and third techniques, known as “whip and pause” and “reading the key hole” must work in harmony. Instead of dragging the electrode at a consistent speed and angle or weaving it side to side, operators “whip” the electrode forward a fraction of an inch (perhaps 3/32 to 1/4 inch) and immediately bring it back about 1/8 inch and “pause” for a fraction of a second to build up the weld puddle.

Some experts describe the whip and pause motion as two steps forward, one step back; the distance of each step roughly equals the electrode diameter. Note that some operators don’t actually pause. Rather, they slowly move forward for about an electrode diameter before whipping again.

Whipping the electrode achieves several objectives. First, it gives the puddle a chance to cool, as well as provides operators with the ability to manipulate the puddle with a great degree of control. Second, it pulls the molten metal forward as the operator moves the electrode forward. Third, as the arc contacts new metal, it digs into the sides of the joint an opens up a keyhole.

Reading the Keyhole
When welding on open root joint and using the whip and pause technique, operators will notice a “keyhole” open up as they whip the rod forward (it’s called a keyhole because it looks like the hole on an old-fashioned lock). Good welding operators can read the keyhole and use it to judge heat input. In addition, they adjust their whip and pause technique, as well as travel speed, to control the size of the keyhole.

If the keyhole gets too large, the arc is in danger of blowing through the joint. To “save” the weld without breaking arc, solutions include increasing travel speed, holding the tightest arc possible and making a slight oval to push the heat onto the bevel. If that fails, stop welding and reduce amperage.

The Right Welder
E6010 electrodes require more voltage than other electrodes. Further, as operators whip the electrode, the arc length changes, and the welding power source needs to keep the arc established.

Because of these two issues, power sources good for running E6010 electrodes share two characteristics. First, they have a high open circuit voltage (OCV), which is voltage at the electrode before the arc is struck (e.g., no current being drawn). A frequent analogy is that OCV — and remember that voltage provides electrical pressure — is like a garden hose with the water turned on and before the nozzle is opened. A power source that provides good electrical pressure provides better arc starts.

Secondly, good E6010 welders have a large inductor. An inductor resists change in electric current passing through it. They are said to “hold power” or act as a “power reserve” to keep the arc established as the operator manipulates the electrode. Conventional power sources and welding generators use large magnetics, such as copper wire wrapped around a ferrite core. Inverter-based power sources use electronics and much smaller magnetics to minimize overall weight.

Note that inverters need to be specifically designed for welding with an E6010 electrode. Adding the required electronic components and writing the algorithms that provide good arc characteristics increases the cost of the unit. Most small multiprocess inverters designed to appeal more to the home-hobby welder simply don’t have these components (and the target audience doesn’t have the skill to run E6010 electrodes even if they did).

Most professional grade inverters also provide Adjustable Hot Start and Adjustable Arc Force control to tailor arc performance for specific electrodes. Hot Start increases current beyond the set value for a few milliseconds to help establish the arc. Because E6010 electrodes “light easily” (especially compared to E7018 electrodes), they do not need much Hot Start assistance; experiment with values of 0 to 15 percent. Arc Force control increases amperage when the voltage drops below a certain threshold, which enables operators to push the electrode into the joint without the electrode sticking. Because of their driving arc, E6010 electrodes do not need much additional Arc Force control; experiment with values of 10 to 30 percent.

Anyone who starts reading about Stick welding soon learns that the welding professionals who Stick weld on pipe, pressure vessels and other critical components stand in a league of their own when it comes to welding skills. One of the skills that sets them apart is their ability to repeatedly make “X-ray quality” welds with an E6010 electrode. To move from apprentice to Journeyman, welders put in thousands of hours of practice using industrial equipment. With the advances in lightweight inverters, these professionals now have another tool that simplifies work when portability matters. In addition, these inverters meet the needs of professionals who want a home welder that runs like their work system. And while the average Joe at home won’t run thousands of stringer beads in practice, at least there’s a unit that enables him to enjoy the benefits of E6010 electrodes.

Plasma Welding

Plasma Welding Handbook Plasma Welding Handbook
Causes of excessive consumable wear. Causes of excessive consumable wear.

Causes of excessive consumable wear.

  • Gas distributor inserted backwards.  Small Collar to the back of the torch.
  • Improper electrode re-sharpening.  If they are sharpening their own tungsten’s they must sharpen on a tungsten grinder at a 20 degree included angle.  If the point of the tungsten is not centered it will cause premature failure of the tip.
  • Tip not sized for the welding current.  Tips are rated at their maximum current capability with the electrode set flush with the end of the tip.
  • Wrong welding gases used.  Must be two independent supplies.  Only use pressure regulators not regulator/flowmeters.  Set both Plasma and shield pressures to 40psi.  Argon only for the plasma gas.  If Stainless steel or titanium use a 95/5 Argon/Hy for the shield gas.  Mild steel argon for the shield gas.
  • Electrode set back and plasma gas flow incorrect for the process.  Be sure they are using the setback tool provided in the parts kit when setting electrode setback.  Setback are used for keyhole process.  Melt in fusion set the electrode flush with the end of the tip.
  • Coolant leak inside torch.  The 4A torch has a liner the tip screws into.  If when replacing the tip they do not support the liner from loosening they will produce a leak.
  • Contaminated coolant.  Must use nonconductive coolant.  If the coolant becomes conductive consumables and torch will fail.
  • Pilot arc turned on and off often and/or startup and shut down procedure incorrect.  Best to leave pilot arc on continuously through the work shift.  Before turning on the pilot purge the torch for 3 to 5 minutes.
What is Plasma Welding? What is Plasma Welding?

Plasma welding is very similar to TIG Welding as the arc is formed between a pointed tungsten electrode and the work piece.  However, by positioning the electrode within the body of the torch, the plasma arc can be separated from the shielding gas envelope.  Plasma is then forced through a fine-bore copper nozzle which constricts the arc.  Three operating modes can be produced by varying the bore diameter and plasma gas flow rate

Microplasma welding – Typical current range from 0.1 – 15A.  Microplasma is used for welding thin sheets (down to 0.004” thickness), and wire and mesh sections.  The needle-like, stiff arc minimizes arc wander and distortion.

Medium current welding (Melt in Fusion Mode)– Typical current range from 15 – 200A.  This is an alternative to conventional TIG.  The advantages are deeper penetration (from higher plasma gas flow), greater tolerance to surface contamination including coatings (the electrode is within the body of the torch) and better tolerance to variations in electrode to work piece distance, without significant change in heat input.

Keyhole welding – Typically over 100A.  By increasing welding current and plasma gas flow, a very powerful plasma beam is created which can achieve full penetration in a material, as in laser or electron beam welding.  During welding, a keyhole is formed which progressively cuts through the metal with the molten weld pool flowing behind to form the weld bead under surface tension forces. This process can be used to weld thicker material (up to 3/8” of stainless steel) in a single pass.

For Ferrous metals the plasma arc is normally operated with a DC, constant current (drooping) characteristic power source. Because its unique operating features are derived from the special torch arrangement and separate plasma and shielding gas flows, a plasma control console can be added on to a conventional TIG power source. Purpose-built plasma systems are also available.  For non-Ferrous metals the plasma arc is normally operated with a Variable polarity, constant current (drooping) characteristic power source.

Although the arc is initiated using HF, it is first formed between the electrode and plasma nozzle. This ‘pilot’ arc is held within the body of the torch until required for welding then it is transferred to the work piece.  The pilot arc system ensures reliable arc starting and, as the pilot arc is maintained between welds, it obviates the need for HF re-ignition which may cause electrical interference.

The electrode used for the plasma process is tungsten-2% thoria, and the plasma nozzle is copper. The plasma nozzle bore diameter is critical and too small a bore diameter for the current level and plasma gas flow rate will lead to excessive nozzle erosion or even melting.

Normal gas combinations are argon for the plasma gas, with argon or argon plus 2 to 5% hydrogen for the shielding gas. Helium can be used for plasma gas but because it is hotter this reduces the current rating of the nozzle. Helium’s lower mass can also make the keyhole mode more difficult. Helium argon mixtures are used as a shielding gas for materials such as copper.

Torch Coolant specification Torch Coolant specification

Coolant Specification: max. conductivity 10 µS/cm, PH 6-8, resist freezing to −12 °C (+10 °f).
Composition: Deionized water 70%, propylene glycol 30%.

Electrode Sharpening Electrode Sharpening

Electrode Sharpening should never be performed free hand on a grinder.  The electrode geometry as described below is critical for proper operation and reliability of the torch.  A high quality tungsten grinder should be used.

How to set electrode setback. How to set electrode setback.

A softer, less constricted arc is obtained by decreasing the electrode setback. Minimum setback distance is obtained with the electrode point set flush with the face of the tip. This technique of setting the electrode allows the plasma gas flow rate to be decreased while maintaining higher current ratings of the tip. This normally provides a slightly larger weld bead and in most cases allows for in­ creased travel speeds. This configuration used for Melt-in Fusion operation.

               

If a soft arc is desired, insert the proper tip into the liner assembly. Loosen the back cap slightly, allowing the electrode point to protrude through the orifice opening. Use a flat surface (or thumb) to push the electrode back until flush with the tip face. Tighten back cap.

To obtain a stiff column arc, insert the electrode gage into the front of the torch and loosen the electrode cap slightly. Push back on the electrode with the gage until the shoulder of the gage seats against the front of the torch. While holding the gage in this position tighten the electrode cap.
Insert the proper tip into the liner assembly and tighten m9derately.

The electrode gage will establish the maximum electrode setback, and a flat surface against the tip face will determine the minimum setback. A setting between these may produce optimum results for some applica­tions. A depth micrometer or pin gage should be used to determine the electrode setting.

SANSTICK 160S

Does it have a gas valve? Does it have a gas valve?

No, TIG Torch requires a gas valve with connection to shielding gas regulator.

Does the 160S have remote control? Does the 160S have remote control?

No,  The 160S does not have remote control functions.

What TIG torch is compatible with it? What TIG torch is compatible with it?

A optional TIG Torch is available with standard off the shelve 10N series consumables.  See Brochure for details.  You can also use any Air Cooled TIG Torch that has a Dinse 50mm power plug and gas valve.

What input can I plug into? What input can I plug into?

115vac and 230vac Single Phase.

Does it have PFC? Does it have PFC?

Yes,  For an explanation of PFC see FAQ Support Topic “Power Factor Correction – What is it?  Why is it required?  How is it Achieved?”

Can I run 6010 electrodes with it? Can I run 6010 electrodes with it?

Yes, you can run 6010 electrodes.

SANARG 180AP

180AP Setup Guide 180AP Setup Guide

Here is a Quick Setup guide for the 180AP.

Setup Guide Link: 180AP Setup

What TIG torch is compatible with the 180AP? What TIG torch is compatible with the 180AP?

A TIG Torch is included with standard off the shelve 10N series consumables with remote torch controls.  You can also use any Air Cooled TIG Torch that has a Dinse 50mm power plug.

What input can I plug into? What input can I plug into?

115vac and 230vac Single Phase.

Does it have PFC? Does it have PFC?

Yes,  For an explanation of PFC see FAQ Support Topic “Power Factor Correction – What is it?  Why is it required?  How is it Achieved?”

Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it? Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it?

Unit does not have the proper inductance to run a 6010 rod. It will run a 6011 just fine.

Does the Sanarg 180AP have HF start? Does the Sanarg 180AP have HF start?

Yes, the Sanarg 180AP does have High Frequency start.

Support Topics

Paralleling Power Supplies Paralleling Power Supplies

How to Parallel Sanrex power supplies.

Paralleling SanRex Power Supplies

Using Generators to power welders Using Generators to power welders

Generator power vs mains power

Compared to mains power, generator power can be characteristically ‘dirty’ and thus has the potential to damage sensitive electronic components inside inverter welding machines. This is especially the case with smaller generator sets that are often chosen for operating the likes of power tools and welders, due to their portability and affordability.

At the same time, the ability to use generator power offers many advantages to operators wanting to run their inverter welding machines in the field or on-site where it is impossible or difficult to access mains power.

So, it is no surprise that one of the first questions operators ask before they consider purchasing an inverter welding machine is: “is it safe to run off a generator?”.  The truthful answer is not always a “yes”.  Sure, plug virtually any inverter welder into a generator and it will likely operate to some level.  But not all generators are created equal and have clean power.

Why is generator power potentially harmful?

AC (mains) power supply follows a pattern called a sine wave.  When it comes to running equipment with sensitive electronics (like inverter machines and computers) power supply with a perfectly clean sine wave is the safest, however in reality this is almost impossible to achieve.

A perfectly ‘clean’ 240V single phase AC sine wave would look something like this:

Mains power is (usually) relatively close to perfect sine power and therefore it rarely poses any problems.

On the other hand, power supply from a portable generator is, by comparison, typically ‘dirty’. The peaks, troughs and cycle frequency will not be consistent even though the average output power may still read 240V on a simple measuring device like a multimeter.  Generator power can also be characterized by voltage ‘surges’ (a rise in voltage) and voltage ‘spikes’ (very sudden peaks of excessive voltage).

In a generator, voltage surges and spikes can occur due to several reasons, including:

  1. Generator Quality: All portable generators typically produce inconsistent power when compared to perfect sine wave power.  This degree of variation from perfect sine wave power is measured as a percentage called ‘Total Harmonic Distortion’ or THD.  An acceptable THD rating in a portable generator is generally considered to be 6% or less.  In recent years, the market has faced a lot of imports of cheap, poor quality generators with unacceptably high THD ratings (over 6%).  While these cheaper generators may run basic power tools without a problem, they are not suitable for running inverter-based machines because the voltage is likely to fluctuate and spike at an unacceptably severe level.
  2. Start up and Shut down: When starting and stopping a generator the engine is obviously not running smoothly and at a constant speed and therefore the output of the generator is very likely to fluctuate with engine speed.
  3. Fuel supply interruption: Like start up and shut down, if the generator runs out of fuel, or if there is a ‘hiccup’ in the fuel supply, the engine will typically speed up and slow down very spasmodically, again causing power fluctuations.
  4. Loading vs. Generator size: A generator that is under-sized &/or over-loaded will work very hard to try and maintain sufficient current supply. Then when the load is removed (eg when welding stops), the engine will typically over-rev until the governor returns the engine to idle speed. This over-revving the generator will very likely increase the voltage output, sometimes to a dangerous level.
  5. Additional loads: The use of other devices (eg; grinder, cut-off saw, etc) on the same generator and at the same time as the welding machine can cause overloading, and therefore cause power fluctuations, if the generator size is not sufficient.
  6. Lack of maintenance: A poorly maintained generator will behave in the same way that a poor-quality generator does.

A typical generator with a high THD over 6% would look something like this.  This is NOT a generator you would want to operate your welding equipment, computer, etc. with.

Why are inverter welders vulnerable?

To significantly reduce the size of the transformer and achieve the many advantages that the inverter gives us (reduced size/weight, etc), the input power must be ‘treated’ before it enters the transformer – in other words instead of immediately passing through the transformer, it first passes through sensitive electronic components.

The main components of concern are capacitors.  Capacitors are devices which constantly charge and discharge voltages.  In an inverter welder, the capacitors will charge at approximately 1.4 times the standard input voltage.  So, in the case of 240V power supply they will charge at about 335V.  The same will occur in the case of a voltage surge or spike.  So, for a 280V surge, they would charge at about 395V which is a voltage increase of 155V.  It is this significant fluctuation in working voltage that can damage or destroy electronic components in an inverter welding machine.

Input voltage protection

At SanRex, we recognize that many operators (especially in rural, construction and maintenance industries) have the need to run their welder off a generator.

SanRex machines are specifically designed to protect against a high level of voltage fluctuations and dirty power.

The following features have been incorporated into SanRex machines to ensure optimum protection from power supply fluctuations:

  • Voltage Sensing Device: This device monitors the input voltage of the machine and if the voltage rises above (or below) a certain level the machine automatically shuts off the voltage supply to vulnerable components.
  • High Voltage Capacitors: SanRex inverters incorporate high performance capacitors which give the machines a higher tolerance against input voltage fluctuations and reduce the risk of damage to the capacitor and other components.
  • Over Specified Componentry & Stress Tested: Key components in SanRex machines are over-specified for guaranteed reliability, and each machine is rigorously tested during manufacture.
  • PFC Technology: In addition, SanRex machines are fitted with PFC (or power factor correction) technology. Put simply, PFC automatically compensates for any fluctuations in input voltage, to deliver a very consistent and ‘clean’ power to the inverter. This greatly reduces the risk of damage from dirty power. It also significantly increases efficiency, allowing these machines to offer a higher output and duty cycle.

Because of this, SanRex inverters include protection circuitry that protects internal components from dirty power.

Bottom line:

  • Do not hook SanRex machines to any generator you would not be comfortable hooking your computer to.
  • Clean power gensets only with a low THD. Name brand means nothing.

If a SanRex machine is rebooting or showing an error when operating on a generator it is most likely because of dirty power produced by the generator.  Our welding machine is protecting itself from the power supplied telling you it will not function on this generator.  A generator issue, not a Welding machine issue.

Guidelines for generator use with inverter welders: Guidelines for generator use with inverter welders:

By following these guidelines, the operator will minimize the risk of damaging voltage spikes and help the welding machine to perform to its full capacity.

Generator Size

Determining the exact generator size required to safely run a welding machine is not always a straightforward process.  Some of the factors to be considered are the current draw ratings of the welder, the rated output of the generator and whether this is a genuine rating (unfortunately some generators are over-rated), whether the generator will or will not be used to run other power equipment at the same time, etc.

For recommended generator sizes to run specific machines, refer to the instruction manual.

Following is a Suggested minimum generator size ‘rule of thumb’ guide*;

Inverter
Welder
Max. Output
Suggested
“Minimum”
Generator Size**
Suggested
“Ideal”
Generator Size***
  Up to 160A 7kva 8+kva
  180–200A 8kva 10+kva
  250A 13kva 15+kva

*Note that if it is intended that the generator will be used to run additional equipment at the same time as the welder, the size of the generator should be increased accordingly. These figures are an approximate guide only and should not replace manufacturers recommendations.
** ‘Minimum’ size is the smallest that we suggest to minimize risk if voltage spikes etc, however it may not be enough to achieve full output from the welder.
*** ‘Ideal’ size will further minimize risk of power supply issues and will allow a higher output from the welder.

Generator Quality

As we have already mentioned, a good quality generator suitable for running an inverter should have a low THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) output.  All reputable suppliers or manufacturers of portable generators will be able to specify what the THD ratings are on their product.

Generators with a low THD rating (6% or less) will have ‘relatively’ clean power and will thus be suitable for running inverter welders.

A generator with a high THD rating (more than 6%) is likely to be a low-quality unit and should not be used to run inverter welders.

The Do’s and Don’ts of using generators with inverter welders:

  • Start up & Shutdown: Always disconnect the welder’s power lead from the generator before starting or stopping the engine on the generator.
  • Fuel Supply: Always ensure that the generator engine has a safe supply of fuel and that the fuel line is in good condition. The engine should not be allowed to run out of fuel while the welder is connected to the generator.
  • Maintenance: Always keep the generator in good condition. Do not use a generator that is in need of service or replacement.
  • Power Extension Leads: Do not use power leads that are of poor quality or in need of repair or replacement. Always use heavy duty leads – see table below.

Suggested Guide for cable size of extension leads used with Inverter Welding Machines*:

Welding Machine
Max. Output
Power Supply Suggested Minimum
Cable Size*
  Up to 200A   240V 10A/15A   Lengths up to 10m: 2.0mm2

Lengths over 10m: 2.5mm2

  250A   240V 15A   2.5mm2
  240V 20/25/32A   4.0mm2

*These figures are an approximate guide only and should not replace manufacturers recommendations.

Can I use a small(er) generator to run my welder?

As shown in the table 5a above, the recommended minimum generator size is not less than 7kva (for up to 160A welders). We often get asked questions like “why can’t I use my 5kva generator to run this welder?”.

We also sometimes see other welding machine suppliers suggesting that their machines can be powered by generators as small as 4-5 kva.

Sure the welder might actually operate to some level, but here’s why using smaller under-sized generators is NOT a good idea;

  • As explained above, the generator will have to work much harder and this will greatly increase the likelihood of severe power spikes that could damage the welder, or cause it to frequently shut down.
  • The output from the welder will be significantly reduced, possibly to the point where the machine is of little use… or becomes very frustrating to the operator.
  • Often the generator will be used at some point to operate other equipment (eg power tools) at the same time and this will further compound the above problems.

Although a larger generator will cost more initially, a correctly sized (or over-sized) generator will allow you to get the job done right the first time… and greatly reduce the risk of costly damage to your welder.  And who ever regrets having ‘too much’ performance?

Here’s another way to look at it; let’s say you’re buying a motor vehicle to tow a trailer. Would you purchase a vehicle that only just has enough power, and must constantly operate close to “red line” rpm to do the job?  Probably not!  In the same way, buying a generator that has more power/output than what you actually need makes a lot of sense.

Catalogs and training guides Catalogs and training guides

Full Line Catalog: Catalog3

What is TIG Welding? What is TIG Welding?

GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)

An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a tungsten (nonconsumable) electrode and the work.  Shielding is obtained from a gas or gas mixture.

Lift Start TIG

Lift Start was developed to provide a positive means of starting the Gas Tungsten Welding arc without high frequency.  High frequency energy has been a very effective method of initiating the arc, but in some cases interferes with computerized equipment.  In an effort to solve this problem, other means to start the arc were needed.  Capacitor discharge circuits have been used, but they also produce radio frequency interference.  Also, both high frequency and capacitor discharge circuits are limited to relatively short torch lead lengths.

Lift Start GTAW is not the same as “Scratch Tig”’ which results in rapid deterioration of the tungsten.  Lift Start works quite differently.  Lift Start circuitry permits the tungsten electrode of the GTAW torch to be placed precisely at the start of the weld, without damage to the tungsten or base metal.  When the tungsten contacts the metal, the power supply limits it’s output to a very low preset value.  The welding arc does not come on until after the tungsten is withdrawn from the metal.  The power supply then automatically adjusts it’s output to the selected welding amperage.  Lift Start may be used with AC or DC operation and may be used with torch leads up to 25ft.

AWS – Recommended Tungsten Electrode, gas cups and welding current

Basic Tig Welding Guide

Electrode Polarity

Connect the TIG torch to the – / TORCH terminal and the work lead to the + / WORK terminal for direct current straight polarity.  Direct current straight polarity is the most widely used polarity for DC TIG welding.  It allows limited wear of the electrode since 70% of the heat is concentrated at the work piece.

Power factor correction – What is it? Why is it required? How is it achieved? Power factor correction – What is it? Why is it required? How is it achieved?

PFC is the acronym for power factor correction.

In laymen’s terms a welding machine with PFC will use less input current than a welding machine without PFC for the same output current setting.   PFC is very helpful when operating on a standard 115vac circuits.  For example, lets say a welding machine without PFC operating on a 20 amp 115vac circuit may only be able to produce 100 amps of output current, but a welding machine with PFC operating on the same 20 amp 115vac circuit could produce 125 amps of welding output.  Big advantage when using a 1/8″ welding electrode that operates from 110 – 120 amps DC.  The welding machine with PFC can perform a weld with this electrode where the welding machine without PFC cannot.

Power factor basics:

Power quality is essential for efficient equipment operation, and power factor contributes to this.

Power factor is the measure of how efficiently incoming power is used in an electrical installation. It is the ratio of active to apparent power, when:

  • Active Power (P) = the power needed for useful work such as turning a lathe, providing light or pumping water, expressed in Watt or KiloWatt (kW)
  • Reactive Power (Q) = a measure of the stored energy reflected to the source which does not do any useful work, expressed in var or Kilovar (kVAR)
  • Apparent Power (S) = the vector sum of active and reactive power, expressed in Volt Amperes or in KiloVolt Amperes (kVA)

The power triangle:

Poor power factor (for example, less than 95%) results in more current being required for the same amount of work.

Power factor correction

Power factor correction (PFC) aims to improve power factor, and therefore power quality. It reduces the load on the electrical distribution system, increases energy efficiency and reduces electricity costs. It also decreases the likelihood of instability and failure of equipment.

Power factor correction is obtained via the connection of capacitors which produce reactive energy in opposition to the energy absorbed by loads such as motors, locally close to the load. This improves the power factor from the point where the reactive power source is connected, preventing the unnecessary circulation of current in the network.

Determining the PFC required

The selection of PFC equipment should be done according to the following four-step process, by persons with the relevant skills:

Step 1: Calculation of the required reactive power

The objective is to determine the required reactive power (Qc (kvar)) to be installed, in order to improve the power factor (cos φ) and reduce the apparent power (S).

Qc can be determined from the formula Qc = P (tan φ – tan φ‘), which is deduced from the diagram.

  • Qc = power of the capacitor bank in kVAr
  • P = active power of the load in kW
  • tan φ = tangent of phase shift angle before compensation
  • tan φ’ = tangent of phase shift angle after compensation

The parameters φ and tan φ can be obtained from billing data, or from direct measurement in the installation.

Step 2: Selection of the compensation mode

The location of low-voltage capacitors in an installation can either be central (one location for the entire installation), by sector (section-by-section), at load level, or a combination of the latter two.

In principle, the ideal compensation is applied at a point of consumption and at the level required at any moment in time. In practice, technical and economic factors govern the choice.

The location is determined by:

  • the overall objective (avoiding penalties on reactive energy, relieving transformers or cables, avoiding voltage drops and sags)
  • the operating mode (stable or fluctuating loads)
  • the foreseeable influence of capacitors on the network characteristics
  • the installation cost

Step 3: Selection of the compensation type

Different types of compensation should be adopted depending on the performance requirements and complexity of control:

  • Fixed, by connection of a fixed-value capacitor bank
  • Automatic, by connection of a different number of steps, allowing adjustment of the reactive energy to the required value
  • Dynamic, for compensation of highly fluctuating loads

Step 4: Allowance for operating conditions and harmonics

Operating conditions have a great impact on the life expectancy of capacitors, so the following parameters should be taken into account:

  • Ambient temperature (°C)
  • Expected over-current related to voltage disturbances, including maximum sustained overvoltage
  • Maximum number of switching operations per year
  • Required life expectancy

Some loads (variable speed motors, static converters, welding machines, arc furnaces, fluorescent lamps, etc.) pollute the electrical network by reinjecting harmonics. It is therefore also necessary to consider the effects of these harmonics on the capacitors.

The benefits of power factor correction

Savings on the electricity bill

Power factor correction eliminates penalties on reactive energy, decreases demand on kVA, and reduces power losses generated in the transformers and conductors of the installation.

Increased available power

Fitting PFC equipment on the low voltage side increases the power available at the secondary of a MV/LV transformer. A high power factor optimizes an electrical installation by allowing better use of the components.

Reduced installation size

Installing PFC equipment allows conductor cross-section to be reduced, as less current is absorbed by the compensated installation for the same active power.

Reduced voltage drops

Installing capacitors allows voltage drops to be reduced upstream of the point where the PFC device is connected, therefore preventing overloading of the network and reducing harmonics.

 

SANMIG 200MF

What is the type of the MIG Gun contact tips and nozzles? What is the type of the MIG Gun contact tips and nozzles?

Tweco 11 series on the 200MF and 14 series on the 250MF.

Can I put a Spoolgun on a 200MF? Can I put a Spoolgun on a 200MF?

Yes,  See Brochure.  We offer a Spool gun for the 200MF and 250MF.  It cannot be attached to any other units.

What TIG torch is compatible with it? What TIG torch is compatible with it?

A optional TIG Torch is available with standard off the shelve 10N series consumables.  See Brochure for details.  You can also use any Air Cooled TIG Torch that has a Dinse 50mm power plug and gas valve.

What input can I plug into? What input can I plug into?

115vac and 230vac Single Phase.

Does it have PFC? Does it have PFC?

Yes,  For an explanation of PFC see FAQ Support Topic “Power Factor Correction – What is it?  Why is it required?  How is it Achieved?”

Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it? Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it?

Unit does not have the proper inductance to run a 6010 rod. It will run a 6011 just fine.

SANMIG 250MF

What is the type of the MIG Gun contact tips and nozzles? What is the type of the MIG Gun contact tips and nozzles?

Tweco 11 series on the 200MF and 14 series on the 250MF.

Can I put a spoolgun on a 250MF? Can I put a spoolgun on a 250MF?

Yes,  See Brochure.  We offer a Spool gun for the 200MF and 250MF.  It cannot be attached to any other units.

What TIG torch is compatible with it? What TIG torch is compatible with it?

A optional TIG Torch is available with standard off the shelve 10N series consumables.  See Brochure for details.  You can also use any Air Cooled TIG Torch that has a Dinse 50mm power plug and gas valve.

What input can I plug into? What input can I plug into?

115vac and 230vac Single Phase.

Does it have PFC? Does it have PFC?

Yes,  For an explanation of PFC see FAQ Support Topic “Power Factor Correction – What is it?  Why is it required?  How is it Achieved?”

Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it? Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it?

Unit does not have the proper inductance to run a 6010 rod. It will run a 6011 just fine.

SANSTICK 140S

What TIG Torch is compatible with a 140S? What TIG Torch is compatible with a 140S?

A optional TIG Torch is available with standard off the shelve 10N series consumables.  See Brochure for details.  You can also use any Air Cooled TIG Torch that has a Dinse 25mm power plug and gas valve.

Does it have a gas valve? Does it have a gas valve?

No, TIG Torch requires a gas valve with connection to shielding gas regulator.

Does the 140S have remote control? Does the 140S have remote control?

No,  The 140S does not have remote control functions.

What input can I plug into? What input can I plug into?

115vac and 230vac Single Phase.

Does the 140S have PFC? Does the 140S have PFC?

No, it does not.  The 160S does have PFC.

Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it? Why can’t I run 6010 rod with it?

Unit does not have the proper inductance to run a 6010 rod. It will run a 6011 just fine.

SANARG 160P

What input can I plug into? What input can I plug into?

115vac and 230vac Single Phase.

Can I run 6010 electrodes with it? Can I run 6010 electrodes with it?

Yes, you can run 6010 electrodes.

SANARG 300AP

What input voltage can I use? What input voltage can I use?

208-230 Single Phase, 208-230,460 three phase.

Can I run 6010 electrodes with it? Can I run 6010 electrodes with it?

Yes, you can run 6010 electrodes.

SANMIG 400M

What input voltage can I use? What input voltage can I use?

208-230 Single Phase, 208-230,460 three phase.

Does the 400M have MIG Pulse? Does the 400M have MIG Pulse?

No, the SANMIG 400M does not include MIG Pulse.  For MIG pulse purchase our 400MP.

Can I run 6010 electrodes with it? Can I run 6010 electrodes with it?

Yes, you can run 6010 electrodes.

SANMIG 400MP

What input voltage can I use? What input voltage can I use?

208-230 Single Phase, 208-230,460 three phase.

Does the 400MP have MIG Pulse? Does the 400MP have MIG Pulse?

Yes, The 400MP has MIG pulse built in.

Can I run 6010 electrodes with it? Can I run 6010 electrodes with it?

Yes, you can run 6010 electrodes.

TIG Welding

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